PERSONAL DATA:

  • Born December 30, 1932; Scio, Ohio
  • Married January 30, 1957, to Sharon Anthony Bower
  • Three children: Lori, Anthony, and Julia
  • EDUCATION:

  • Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. BA 1954.
  • University of Minnesota, Woodrow Wilson Fellowship studying Philosophy of Science & Mathematics 9/54-6/55.
  • Yale University, MS June 1957; Ph.D. 1959, Psychology, graduated with distinction.
  • PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS:

  • Conditioning, Learning, Memory, Language Comprehension
  • Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification
  • PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT:

  • Stanford University Dept of Psychology, appointed as assistant professor 9/1959, promoted to associate then full professor (1966), retired to emeritus status 01/2008.
  • Visiting Professor of Psychology, Phillips University of Marburg, Germany, Spring semester 1987
  • Chief Science Advisor to the Director of the National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD. 3/1992-3/1993
  • Visiting Professor of Psychology (Holtzman Chair), University of Texas, Austin, TX Fall semester 2003 & Fall 2005
  • PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

  • American Psychological Association, since 1960
  • Western Psychological Association, since 1962
  • Psychonomic Society, since 1960
  • Society of Experimental Psychologists, since 1965
  • The National Academy of Sciences, since 1973
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences, since 1973
  • Cognitive Science Society, founder, since 1967
  • American Psychological Society (Now Association for Psychological Science)
  • International Society for Research on Emotions, since 1987
  • Society for the Study of Text and Discourse, since 1968
  • American Philosophical Society, since 2004.
  • PROFESSIONAL SERVICE:

  • Member, Experimental Psychology Review Board, National Institutes of Mental Health, 1968-1971. Many reviews of grant proposals since then.
  • Member, Psychology and the Educational Process Committee of the Social Science Research Council, 1970-1972.
  • Member, Executive Committee of Division of Experimental Psychology, APA, 1974-1976. Chairman, 1975.
  • Member, Governing Board of the Psychonomics Society, 1972-1976. Chairman and President, 1976.
  • Publications Committee of the Psychonomics Society, 1974-1978. Chairman, 1978.
  • Chairman of the Stanford Psychology Department, 1978-1982.
  • National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1980-1983. 2011-2012
  • Associate Dean of Humanities & Sciences, Stanford University, 1983-1986.
  • Governing Board, Cognitive Science Society, 1981-1988. Chairman and President, 1987.
  • Member, "Forum on Federal Research Management" Committee of the Federation of Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences, 1986-1989.
  • Member of the Advisory Board, The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, 1989-1996.
  • Member, International Union of Psychological Science (US Committee), 1991-1999.
  • Conducted reviews of research programs throughout psychology for the Office of Naval Research, National Institute of Aging, and National Science Foundation.
  • Founding Member of the International Society for Research on Emotion, 1987.
  • Science Advisory Committee to Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association, 1989-1990.
  • Chief Science Advisor to the Director of APA's Science Directorate, 1985-1992
  • Board of Scientific Affairs, American Psychological Association, 1991.
  • Board of Directors, American Psychological Society, 1989-1993.
  • Warren Medal Committee, Society for Experimental Psychologists, 1991-1993.
  • Convention Program Committee, Western Psychological Association, 1993-1994.
  • Organizer and presenter, Presidential Symposium on "Neuropsychology" at Convention of the American Psychological Society, June 1993.
  • Reviews of several grant proposals to the R.K. Mellon Foundation from the Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC) Carnegie Mellon University/ & University of Pittsburgh.
  • Chairman; External Advisory Board for the CNBC (above), 1994-1999.
  • The President's External Advisory Committee to the Psychology Department; Carnegie Mellon University, 1993-annually through 2004); the Dean’s Arts and Sciences Advisory Committee at Carnegie Mellon University, 2000.
  • Presidential External Review Committees on Departments of Psychology at New York University, Northwestern, Princeton, Harvard, and University of Minnesota and South Florida.
  • Board of Directors, The Beckman Center for Cognitive Science, The University of Illinois, 1986- 1991.
  • Chairman of the NIMH Task Force (50 members) that produced "Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health," a 137-page report to Congress, assembled during 11/92-6/95.
  • Advisor to the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco, CA, on human memory exhibits, 1993- 1996.
  • EDITORIAL CONSULTANT:

  • Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1963-1970.
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1965-1972.
  • Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1964-1970.
  • Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1965-1969.
  • British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 1965-1974.
  • Cognitive Psychology, 1969-1975.
  • Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1976-1980.
  • Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (now Journal of Memory and Language), 1968- 1989.
  • Senior Editor, Annual Research Volume, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Academic Press. Annually 1968-1991 (Edited 23 annual volumes + 2 extra ones).
  • Cognitive Science, 1980-1996.
  • Advisory Board, Series in Cognitive Science, Harvard University Press, 1981-1991.
  • Advisory Board, MIT Press Series, Computational Models of Cognition, and Perception, 1983-1991.
  • Cognition and Emotion, 1986-2006.
  • Associate Editor, Annual Review of Psychology, 1986-1991.
  • Connection Science: A Journal of Neural Network and PDP Research, 1988-present.
  • Consciousness and Cognition, 1989-2007.
  • Occasional Reviewer for Psychological Review, Science, Child Development, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, guest reviewer on ad hoc basis for many other journals.
  • Reviewed grant proposals for National Science Foundation, NIMH, NIE, and Canadian and Australian Research Councils.
  • Senior Advisory Editor, Encyclopedia of Psychology, by Oxford University Press and the American Psychological Association. Published 2000
  • Senior Advisory Editor, Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, by Elsevier Publishers. Published 2001
  • HONORS AND AWARDS:

  • Woodrow Wilson Fellowship for Graduate Study at University of Minnesota, 1954-55
  • NIMH Fellowship for Graduate Study at Yale University, 1956-1959
  • NIMH Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Pittsburg VA Hospital, 06-08/1959
  • Society of Experimental Psychologists, elected 1965. (President, 1989)
  • NIMH Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, University of London, U. K. 1965.
  • National Academy of Sciences, elected 1973.
  • Fellowship at The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, 1973.
  • Fellow of Division 3 (Experimental) of The American Psychological Association, elected 1973.
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences, elected 1975.
  • President of Division 3 (Experimental) of the American Psychological Association, elected 1975.
  • Elected Chairman of the Governing Board and President, Psychonomics Society, 1975-1976.
  • Albert Ray Lang Professorship Chair, Stanford University, awarded 1975.
  • Sir Frederick Bartlett Lecturer, British Experimental Psychology Society, 1975.
  • Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award. American Psychological Association, Sept. 1979.
  • Elected to Governing Board, Cognitive Science Society, 1981-1988.
  • Elected Chairman of the Governing Board and President of the Cognitive Science Society, 1987-1988.
  • Festschrift: Tutorials in Learning and Memory: Essays in Honor of Gordon Bower. Edited and written by ten of my former Ph.D. students. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co. 1984.
  • The Howard Crosby Warren Medal, The Society of Experimental Psychologists, awarded 1986.
  • William James Fellow Award for significant scientific contributions, the American Psychological Society, 1989.
  • Elected President of Western Psychological Association, 1990-1991 (President Elect, 1989-1990).
  • Invited Keynote Speaker to numerous conventions, including American Psychological Association, Western Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association, British Psychological Association, British Experimental Psychologists Society, American Association of Behavior Therapists, European Association of Behavior Therapists, German Psychological Association.
  • Elected President of American Psychological Society, 1991-1993.
  • Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters, University of Chicago, June 1991.
  • Honorary Doctorate of Science, Indiana State University, May 1993.
  • Senior Science Advisor to the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health; Bethesda, MD. 4/92-4/93.
  • Board of Scientific Advisors, Science Directorate of the American Psychological Association. 6/93
  • Chief Scientific Advisor, American Psychological Association. 1993-2006.
  • NIMH - MERIT Award for his research grant (5 years initial funding; grant was renewed for 5 years through 2002). Had 48 years of continuous research funding from NIMH, 1960-2008.
  • Wilbur Cross Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contributions and Career; Yale University Graduate School. May, 1995.
  • Keynote address to The Third International Conference on Human Memory in Padova, Italy, July 12, 1996.
  • Keynote address to convention of American Psychological Association on “Emotion and Social Judgement.” August 19, 1996.
  • Panel to advise NIH director’s office regarding support for behavioral science research within the NIH. February 1996.
  • The John Kendall Honorary lectures at Gustavus Adolphus College; St. Peter, Minnesota. April 1996.
  • Keynote address at opening of German Psychological Association, in Dresden. September 1998.
  • Advisory Committee to Director of NIMH on Psychology and Public Health Initiatives. October 1999-2000.
  • Presidential Citation for scientific contributions. American Psychological Association, 2002.
  • Keynote address to the plenary session of the Psychonomic Society in Vancouver, Nov. 2003
  • Honorary Doctorate Degree, University of Basel, Switzerland. Nov, 2003
  • American Philosophical Society, Elected Oct. 2004
  • Elected President of the Western Psychological Society, 2004 (for second time)
  • Lifetime Contributions Award, Western Psychological Association, 2006
  • Received United States' President’s National Medal of Science, 2005 (Pubic ceremony, July 2007)
  • A second Festschrift, Memory and Mind: A Festschrift for Gordon Bower. Edited by M. Gluck, J. Anderson, and S. Kosslyn. New York: Erlbaum, 2008.
  • Elected Distinguished Fellow and Founding Member, Cognitive Science Society, Initial year, 2008
  • Outstanding Graduate Student Mentoring Award, Western Psychological Association, 2011.
  • Outstanding Mentoring Award, Association for Psychological Science. May, 2018.
  • Publications (1958 – 2018):

    Please see copyright notice at the bottom of this page. I encourage sharing access to these materials for educational and scientific purposes by pointing others to this page or to the urls of the specific items listed.

    1958

    Bower, G. H., & Miller, N. (1958). Rewarding and punishing effects from stimulating the same place in the rat's brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51, 669- 674.PDF

    1959

    Bower, G. H. (1959). Response latency as a function of brain stimulation variables. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 533-535.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1959). Choice-point behavior. In Bush, R. R. & Estes, W. K. (Eds.), Studies in mathematical learning theory. Stanford: Stanford University Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Fowler, H., & Trapold, M. A. (1959). Escape learning as a function of amount of shock reduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 482-484.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Trapold, M. A. (1959). Reward magnitude and learning in a single-presentation discrimination. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 727-729.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (1959). A theory of serial discrimination learning. In R. R. Bush & W. K. Estes (Eds.) Studies in mathematical learning theory. Stanford, Ca; Stanford University Press.PDF

    1960

    Bower, G. H. (1960). Partial and correlated reward in escape learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 126-130.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1960). Properties of the one-element model as applied to paired associate learning (Report No. 31). Stanford: Stanford University Press. Published essentially in Psychometrika, 1961.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Miller, N. (1960). Effects of amount of reward on strength of approach in an approach-avoidance conflict. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 59-62.PDF

    1961

    Bower, G. H. (1961). Correlated delay of reinforcement. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 196-203.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1961). Application of the all-or-none conditioning model to the learning of compound responses (Report No. 37). Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences. Stanford: Stanford University Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1961). All or none model for verbal discrimination learning. Unpublished manuscript.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1961). Application of a model to paired-associate learning. Psychometrika, 26, 255-280.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1961). A contrast effect in differential conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 196-199.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1961). General three-state Markov learning models. Technical Report #41. Institute for mathematical studies in the social sciences. Stanford, Ca (Pp 1-16).PDF

    1962

    Bower, G. H. (1962). The influence of graded reductions in reward and prior frustrating events upon the magnitude of the frustration effect. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 582-587.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1962). An association model for response and training variables in paired- associate learning. Psychological Review, 69, 34-53.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1962). Response strengths and choice probability: A consideration of two combination rules. In E. Nagel, P. Suppes & A. Tarski (Eds.), Logic, methodology, and philosophy of science: Proceedings of the 1960 International Congress. Stanford: Stanford University Press. PDF

    Bower, G. H. (April, 1962). Some experiments related to a learning model. Paper given at Western Psychological Association Meeting. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.(No PDF)

    1963

    Bower, G. H. (1963). Secondary reinforcement and frustration. Psychological Reports, 12, 359- 362.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Kaufman, R. (1963). Transfer across drives of the discriminative effect of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 445- 448.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Trabasso, T. (1963). Reversals prior to solution in concept identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 409-418. Bower, G. H. (1964).PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1963). Simple storage models for immediate memory. RAND Workshop; Santa Monica, CA.PDF

    Grusec, T., & Bower, G.H. (1965). Response effort and the frustration hypothesis. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60, #1, 128-130.PDF

    1964

    Bower, G. H., & Grusec, T. (1964). Effect of prior Pavlovian discrimination training upon learning an operant discrimination. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7, 40l- 404.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Theios, J. (1964). A test of the competing response-interference hypothesis of extinction. Psychonomic Science, 1, 395-396.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1964). Drive level and preference between two incentives. Psychonomic Science, 1, 132-133. PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Theios, J. (1964). A learning model for discrete performance levels. In R. C. Atkinson (Ed.), Studies in mathematical psychology (pp. 1-31). Stanford: Stanford University Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H.., & Trabasso, T. (1964). Concept identification. In R. C. Atkinson (Ed.), Studies in mathematical psychology. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 32-93.PDF

    Trabasso, T., & Bower, G. H. (1964). Memory in concept identification. Psychonomic Science, 1, 133-134.PDF

    Trabasso, T., & Bower, G. H. (1964). Component learning in the four-category concept problem. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1, 143-169. PDF

    1965

    Atkinson, R. C., Bower, G. H., & Crothers, E. J. (1965). An introduction to mathematical learning theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Book).

    Bower, G. H., Starr, R., & Lazarovitz, L. (1965). Amount of response-produced change in the CS and avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 59, 13-17. PDF

    Grusec, T,. & Bower, G.H. (1965). Response effort and the frustration hypothesis. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60 (#1), 128-130.PDF

    1966

    Bower, G. H. (1966). Probability learning of response patterns. Psychonomic Science, 4, 215- 216.PDF

    Bower, G. H., McLean, J., & Meacham, J. (1966). Value of knowing when reinforcement is due. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 62, 184-192.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Trabasso, T. (1966). Presolution dimensional shifts in concept identification: A test of the sampling with replacement axiom in all-or-none models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 3, 163-173.PDF

    Trabasso, T., Bower, G. H., Gelman, R., & Schaeffer, B. (1966). Selection and additivity of cues in concept identification. Psychonomic Science, 4, 35-36.PDF

    1967

    Bower, G. H. (1967). A multicomponent theory of the memory trace. Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1967). A descriptive theory of memory. In D. P. Kimble (Ed.), The Organization of recall (pp. 112-185). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.PDF

    Jonckheere, A. R., & Bower, G. H. (1967). Non-parametric trend tests for learning data. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 20, 163-186.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1967). Verbal learning. In H. Helson & W. Bevan (Eds.) Contemporary approaches to psychology. Chapter 5, pp.181-222. Princeton, N.J., van Nostrand Co.PDF

    1968

    Bower, G. H., & Bostrom, A. (1968). Absence of within-list PI and RI in short-term recognition memory. Psychonomic Science, 10, 211-212.PDF

    Bower, G. (Sept. 1968). Organizational factors in free recall. Invited address, Western Psychological Association, San Diego, CA; and convention of American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.(See also Bower, 1970. in Cognitive Psychology). PDF

    Trabasso, T., & Bower, G. H. (1968). Attention in learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.(Book).

    Bower, G. (1968). Educational applications of mnemonics devices. Speech at convention of the American Educational Research Association.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1968). Fads, foibles, and fallacies of human memory. Speech delivered to Sigma Xi Society; Stanford University. Similar talk at Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX in Feb. 1976. PDF

    1969

    Bobrow, S., & Bower, G. H. (1969). Comprehension and recall of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 515-518. PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Bolton, L. (1969). Why are rhymes easy to learn? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82, 453-461. PDF

    Bower, G.H. (1969). Elaborative strategies in associative learning. Speech at International Congress of Psychology; London. Pp 1-11.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1969). Chunks as interference units in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 610-613. PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Clark, M. (1969). Narrative stories as mediators for serial learning. Psychonomic Science, 14, 181-182.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Clark, M., Lesgold, A., & Winzenz, D. (1969). Hierarchical retrieval schemes of recall of categorized word lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 323- 343.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Lesgold, A. (1969). Organization as a determinant of part-to-whole transfer in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 501-506. PDF

    Bower, G. H., Lesgold, A., & Tieman, D. (1969). Grouping operations in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 481-493. PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Winzenz, D. (1969). Group structure coding and memory for digit series. Journal of Experimental Psychology Monographs, 80, (2, Pt. 2).PDF

    Wolford, G., & Bower, G. H. (1969). Continuity theory revisited: Rejected for the wrong reasons? Psychological Review, 76, 515-518.PDF

    1970

    Bernbach, H., & Bower, G. H. (1970). Confidence ratings in continuous paired-associate learning. Psychonomic Science, 21, 252-253.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1970). Analysis of a mnemonic device. American Scientist,58,496-519. PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1970). Mental imagery in memory. In M. Foley, R. Lockhart & D. Messeck (Eds.), Contemporary reading in psychology (pp. 276-287). New York: Harper & Sons.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1970). Imagery as a relational organizer in associative learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 529-533.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1970). Organizational factors in memory. Cognitive Psychology, 1, 18-46.PDF

    Lesgold, A., & Bower, G. H. (1970). Inefficiency of serial knowledge for associative responding. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 456-466.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Springston, F. (1970). Pauses as recoding points in letter series. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83 (3), 421-430.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Winzenz, D. (1970). Comparison of associative learning strategies. Psychonomic Science, 20, 2, 119-120.PDF

    Winzenz, B., & Bower, G. H. (1970). Subject-imposed coding and memory for digit series. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83 (1), 52-56.PDF

    1971

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1971). On an associative trace for sentence memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 637-680.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1971). Adaptation-level coding and the serial position effect. In M. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory (pp. 175-201). New York: Academic Press. PDF

    1972

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1972). Configural properties in sentence memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 592-605.PDF

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1972). Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall. Psychological Review, 79, 97-123.PDF

    Arnold, P., & Bower, G. H. (1972). Perceptual conditions affecting ease of association. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 176-180.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1972). Perceptual groups as coding units in immediate memory. Psychonomic Science, 27, 217-219.PDF

    Arnold, P., Bower, G. H., & Bobrow, S. (1972). Mediated semantic compatibility in associative learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 239-242.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1972). A selective review of organizational factors in memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1972). Memory and remembering: Chapters 1 & 2 of the start of a book, but was dropped. PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1972). Educational application of mnemonics. Paper delivered at the American Educational Research Association Convention, Minneapolis, MN, 1970. Published in K. O. Doyle, Jr. (Ed.), INTERFACE: Readings in General Human Psychology. New York: D. C. Heath.(See Bower, 1970, Mental imagery and memory).

    Bower, G. H. (1972). Mental imagery and associative learning. Paper presented at the Fifth Annual Symposium on Cognition at Carnegie Mellon University, 1969. In Lee Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory (pp. 51-88). New York: John Wiley & Sons.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1972). Stimulus-sampling theory of encoding variability. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory (pp. 85-123), Washington, DC: V. H. Winston.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Munoz, R., & Arnold, P. (1972). On distinguishing semantic and imaginal mnemonics. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Reitman, J. (1972). Mnemonic elaboration in multi-list learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 478-485.PDF

    1973

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1973). Human associative memory. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston.(Book)

    Bower, G. H. (1973). How to...uh...remember. Psychology Today, October.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Holyoak, K. (1973). Encoding and recognition memory for naturalistic sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101, 360-366.PDF

    Reitman, J., & Bower, G. H. (1973). Storage and later recognition of exemplars of concepts. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 194-206.PDF

    1974

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1974). A propositional theory of recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 2, 406-412.PDF

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1974). Interference in memory for multiple contexts. Memory & Cognition, 2, 509-514.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1974). Selective facilitation and interference in retention of prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 1-8.PDF

    Flexser, A., & Bower, G. H. (1974). How frequency affects recency judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 706-716.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Karlin, M. (1974). Depth of processing pictures of faces and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 751-757.PDF

    Kosslyn, S., & Bower, G. H. (1974). The role of imagery in sentence memory: A developmental study. Child Development, 45, 30-38.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Minaire, H. (1974). Selective interference with item-vs.order-information in serial recall. American Journal of Psychology, 87, 557-564.PDF

    Sternberg, R., & Bower, G. H. (1974). Transfer in part-whole and whole-part free recall: A comparative evaluation of theories. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 1-26.PDF

    Thorndyke, P., & Bower, G. (1974). Storage and retrieval processes in sentence memory. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 515-543.PDF

    Tulving, E., & Bower, G. H. (1974). The logic of memory representations. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 265-297). New York: Academic Press.PDF

    1975

    Bower, G. H. (1975). Cognitive psychology: An introduction. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognition (Pp. 25-80). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.PDF

    Flexser, A., & Bower, G. H. (1975). Further evidence regarding instructional effects on frequency judgments. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 6, 321-324.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Karlin, M., & Dueck, A. (1975). Comprehension and memory for pictures. Memory & Cognition, 3(2), 216-220.PDF

    Hilgard, E., & Bower, G. H. (1975). Theories of learning (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(Book)

    1976

    Bower, S. A., & Bower, G. H. (1976). Asserting yourself: A practical guide for positive action. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(Book).

    Bower, G. H., & Glass, A. (1976). Structural units and the redintegrative power of picture fragments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 456- 466.PDF

    Karlin, M., & Bower, G. H. (1976). Semantic category effects in visual word search. Perception & Psychophysics, 19, 417-424.PDF

    Owens, J. & Bower, G.H. (1976). Character point of view and text recall. Speech at WPA, San Francisco, CA. (See "Soap opera effect", 1979). PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1976). Experiments on story understanding and recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28, 511-534.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (Sept. 1976). Comprehending and recalling stories. Division 3 Presidential Address at APA, Washington, DC. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    Fiksel, J., & Bower, G. H. (1976). Question-answering by a network of parallel automata. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 13, 1-45.PDF

    Holyoak, K., Glass, A., & Bower, G. H. (1976). Decision processes in semantic memory (Les processus de decision dans la memoire semantique). Bulletin de Psychologie, Special Annuel, 92-101.PDF

    1977

    Bower, G. H. (1977). On injecting life into deadly prose: studies in explanation-seeking. Invited address to Western Psychological Association, Seattle, WA. (Also see Bower, in Discourse Processes, 1978).PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1977). On representing the development of human knowledge. In R. Siegler (Ed.), The development of knowledge: The Fifth Carnegie-Mellon Symposium. New York: Wiley.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1977). Modern conceptions of human memory. Journal of Czechoslovakian Psychology, 22, 232-242.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1977). Later reflections on the Multicomponent Theory of the Memory Trace. In "Selections from the Psychology of Learning and Motivation"Academic Press, New York.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1977). Memory. Section in Encyclopedia Americana. New York.(No PDF)

    Bower, G. H., & Black, J. (1977). Action schemata in story comprehension and memory. Speech given at APA Convention, San Francisco. Unpublished manuscript.PDF

    Black, J., Turner, T., & Bower, G. H. (1977). Spatial reference points in language comprehension. Speech given at APA Convention, San Francisco.(See Black, Turner & Bower, 1979)

    Owens, J., Dafoe, J., & Bower, G. H. (1977). Taking a point of view: Character identification and attributional processes in story comprehension and memory. Speech given at APA Convention, San Francisco. PDF

    Black, J., & Bower, G. H. (1978). Memory for level of category references in stories. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    1978

    Bower, G. H. (1978). Experiments on story comprehension and recall. Discourse Processes, 1, 211-231.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1978). Contacts of cognitive psychology with social learning theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 123-147.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1978). Critique of S-R conditioning theory. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1978). Improving memory. Human Nature, February, 65-72.(Reprinted in Washington Post, Jan 22, 1978.), PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1978). Interference paradigms for meaningful propositional memory. American Journal of Psychology, 91 (4), 575-585.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Masling, M. (1978). Causal explanations as mediators for remembering correlations. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    Black, J.B. & Bower, G.H. (1978). Story episode length and memory. Speech at 1978 convention of Western Psychological Association. See also Black & Bower, 1979.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Monteiro, K. (1978). Emotional mood and character identification in story memory. Speech at 1978 convention of Western Psychological Convention, San Francisco, CA. Unpublished manuscript. PDF

    Bower, G. H., Monteiro, K., & Gilligan, S. (1978). Emotional mood as a context for learning and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 573-585.PDF

    1979

    Anderson, J., & Bower, G. H. (1979). Human associative memory (Revised edition. A book). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Assoc.

    Black, J., Turner, T., & Bower, G. H. (1979). Point of view in narrative comprehension, memory and production. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 187-199.PDF

    Black, J., & Bower, G. H. (1979). Episodes as chunks in narrative memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 309-318.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1979). Superordinate schema as mediators in associative learning. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Black, J., & Turner, T. (1979). Scripts in memory for text. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 177-220.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Gilligan, S. (1979). Remembering information related to one's self. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 420-432.PDF

    Owens, J., & Bower, G. H., & Black, J. (1979). The “Soap Opera'' effect in story recall. Memory & Cognition, 7, 185-191.PDF

    1980

    Barsalou, L., & Bower, G. H. (Sept. 1980). A priori determinants of a concept's highly accessible information. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Montreal.PDF

    Black, J., & Bower, G. H. (1980). Story understanding as problem-solving. Poetics, 9, 223-250.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Myers, G. (1980). Memory for scripts with organized vs. randomized presentations. British Journal of Psychology, 71, 369-377.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (Sept., 1980). Emotional mood and memory. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Montreal.(See Mood & Memory, 1981).

    Reyes, R., Thompson, W., & Bower, G. H. (1980). Delayed effects of availability on judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 2-12.PDF

    Gilligan, S.G. & Bower, G.H. (1980). The set-size effect in person memory. Unpublished paper.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1980). Recent research on schema and script learning. Speech given at Japan-US workshop on cognitive science. Tokyo. 1980. PDF

    Bower, G.H. (1980). Autobiography written for APA's Scientific Contributions Award.PDF

    1981

    Bellezza, F. S., & Bower, G. H. (1981). The representational and processing characteristics of scripts. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 18(1), 1-4.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. Psychology Today, June, 60-69.(See the American Psychologist article.)

    Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129-148.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Gilligan, S. G., & Monteiro, K. (1981). Selectivity of learning caused by affective states. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 451-473.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Hilgard, E. (1981). Theories of learning (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(Book)

    Bellezza, F. S., & Bower, G. H. (1981). The formation of verbal schemas. (4 experiments). Unpublished manuscript. Stanford.PDF

    Ross, H. B., & Bower, G. H. (1981). Comparisons of models of associative recall. Memory & Cognition, 9, 1-16.PDF

    Leirer, V. O., & Bower, G. H. (1981). Schemas for members of social groups. Unpublished manuscript. PDF

    Leirer, V. O., & Bower, G. H. (1981). Memory bias in impression formation. Unpublished manuscript.PDF

    Wright, W. F., & Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood effects on subjective probability assessment. Unpublished manuscript.(See Wright & Bower revision, 1992).

    1982

    Bellezza, F. S., & Bower, G. H. (1982). Person stereotypes and memory for people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 1-23.PDF

    Bellezza, F. S., & Bower, G. H. (1982). Remembering script-based text. Poetics, 11, 1-23.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1982).Emotiones y cognicion (Emotion and cognition). Keynote speech given at the Thirteenth Mexican Congress of Psychology (1982). Mexico City: Trillas Co.(See Bower, 1985).PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Cohen, P. R. (1982). Emotional influences on memory and thinking: Data and theory. In S. Fiske & M. Clark (Eds.), Affect and cognition (pp. 291-331). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.PDF

    Gerrig, R. J., & Bower, G. H. (1982). Emotional influences on word recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 19 (4), 197-200.PDF

    Halpern, A. R., & Bower, G. H. (1982). Musical expertise and melodic structure in memory for musical notation. American Journal of Psychology, 95, 31-50.PDF

    Schorr, D., Bower, G. H., & Kiernan, R. (1982). Stimulus variables in the block design task. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 479-487.PDF

    1983

    Bower, G. H. (1983). Affect and cognition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series B), 302, 387-402. (Also published in D. Broadbent (Ed.), Functional aspects of human memory (pp. 149-164). London: The Royal Society.)PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1983). Plans and goals in understanding episodes. In A. Flammer & W. Kintsch (Eds.), Discourse processing (pp. 2-15). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.PDF

    Gilligan, S. G., & Bower, G. H. (1983). Reminding and mood-congruent memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 21, 431-434.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1983). Mood as a context for learning and remembering. Unpublished paper (5 experiments); Stanford University.PDF

    Moar, I., & Bower, G. H. (1983). Inconsistency in spatial knowledge. Memory & Cognition, 11, 107-113.PDF

    Yesavage, J. A., Rose, T. L., & Bower, G. H. (1983). Interactive imagery and affective judgments improve face-name learning in the elderly. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 197- 203.PDF

    1984

    Barsalou, L. W., & Bower, G. H. (1984). Discrimination nets as psychological models. Cognitive Science, 8, 1-26.PDF

    Forgas, J. P., Bower, G. H., & Krantz, S. E. (1984). The influence of mood on perceptions of social interactions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 497-513.PDF

    Gilligan, S. G., & Bower, G. H. (1984). Cognitive consequences of emotional arousal. In C. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotion, cognition & behavior (pp. 547-588). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.PDF

    Kiernan, R. J., Bower, G. H., & Schorr, D. (1984). Stimulus variables in the block design task revisited: A reply to Royer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 705-709.PDF

    Sharkey, N., & Bower, G. B. (1984). The integration of goals and actions in text understanding. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 315- 317). Boulder, CO.PDF

    1985

    Bower, G. H. (1985). Emociones Y Cognicion ("Emotion and cognition" Spanish translation). In X. Gallegos & L. Hernandez (Eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Mexican Congress of Psychology (1982). Vol. 1 (pp. 110-118). Mexico City: Trillas Co.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1985). Chapters: Brain & behavior; Sensation, perception, learning; Memory; Cognition; and Language and its acquisition. In Bootzin, Bower, & Zajonc. Psychology Today (6th ed.) NY: Random House.(Book)

    Bower, G. H., & Cirilo, R. K. (1985). Cognitive psychology and text processing. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Handbook of discourse processing, Vol. 1 (pp.71-105). New York: Academic Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Mayer, J. D. (1985). Failure to replicate mood-dependent retrieval. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 39-42.(Also see Bower & Mayer, 1989).PDF

    Kavanagh, D. J., & Bower, G. H. (1985). Mood and self-efficacy: Impact of joy and sadness on perceived capabilities. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 507-525.PDF

    Mayer, J. D., & Bower, G. H. (1985). Naturally occurring mood and learning: Comment on Hasher et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 396-403.PDF

    Mayer, J. D., & Bower, G. H. (1985). Mood-dependent retrieval: Commentary on Wetzler. Psychological Reports, 57, 1000-1002. PDF

    1986

    Foss, C.L. & Bower, G. H. (1986). Understanding actions in relation to goals. In N. E. Sharkey (Ed.), Advances in cognitive science 1, (pp. 94-124). Chichester: Ellis Horwood.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1986). Prime time in cognitive psychology. In P. Eelen (Ed.), Cognitive research and behavior therapy: Beyond the conditioning paradigm. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishers.PDF

    Rose, T. L., Bower, G. H., & Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Priming effects and recognition memory in young and elderly adults. Experimental Aging Research, 12(1), 31-37.PDF

    Gluck, M. A., & Bower, G. H. (1986). Conditioning and categorization: Some common effects of informational variables in animal and human learning. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 126-140. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.PDF

    Meier, R. & Bower, G. H. (1986). Semantic reference and phrasal grouping in the acquisition of a miniature phrase structure language. Journal of Memory and Language 25, 492-505.PDF

    Mayer, J. D. & Bower, G. H. (August, 1986). Detecting mood dependent retrieval. Paper presented at the 94th convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. PDF

    Mayer, J. D. & Bower, G. H. (1986). Learning and memory for personality prototypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 473-492.PDF

    Gluck, M. & Bower, G. H. (Nov., 1986) Category learning, judgment and the Rescorla-Wagner model. Paper presented at Psychonomics Society Meetings, New Orleans, LA.(No PDF. See Gluck & Bower, 1988).

    McClelland, J., Feldman, J., Adelson, B., Bower, G. H., & McDermott, D. (June, 1986). Connectionist models and cognitive science: Goals, directions and implications. Report to the National Science Foundation.(Book)

    1987

    Bellezza, F. S. & Bower, G. H. (1987). The formation of verbal schemata: Mediation and interference processes. Unpublished manuscript. Part 1. PDF

    PDF).

    Bellezza, F. S. & Bower, G. H. (1987). The formation of verbal schemata: Mediation and interference processes. Unpublished manuscript. Part 2. PDF

    PDF).

    Morrow, D., Greenspan, S., & Bower, G. H. (1987). Accessibility and situation models in narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 165-187.PDF

    Mayer, J.D., & Bower, G. H. (1987) Experiments on mood dependent retrieval. Speech given at APA Convention.(See Bower & Mayer, 1989).

    Sharkey, N. E., & Bower, G. H. (1987). A model of memory organization for interacting goals. In P. E., Morris (Ed.), Modeling cognition (pp. 231-248). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.PDF

    Forgas, J.P., & Bower, G. H. (1987). Mood effects on person-perception judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 53-60.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1987). Commentary on mood and memory. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 25, 443-455.PDF

    Gluck, M. & Bower, G. H. (November, 1987). Selective attention and hypothesis testing in adaptive network models of learning. Speech given at the Psychonomics Society Meeting, Seattle, WA. Unpublished manuscript.(No PDF. See Gluck & Bower, 1988).

    1988

    Bower, G. H. (1988). The role of spatial models in narrative comprehension. Speech given at Society of Experimental Psychologists, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.(No PDF. See Bower & Morrow, Science, 1990)

    Clapper, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (1988). The impact of category knowledge on encoding and comparing instances. Unpublished paper; speech presented at the Western Psychological Association Convention, Burlingame, CA.PDF

    Franklin, N. & Bower, G. H. (1988). Retrieving actions from goal hierarchies. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26 (1), 15-18.PDF

    Gluck, M. & Bower, G. H. (1988). Evaluating an adaptive network model of human learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 166-195.PDF

    Hamilton, V., Bower, G. H. & Frijda, N. (Eds.) (1988). Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.(Book).

    Forgas, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (1988). Affect in social judgments. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 125-145.PDF

    Corter, J.E., Gluck, M. A., & Bower, G. H. (1988). Basic levels in hierarchically structured categories. Paper at Tenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.PDF

    Munakata, Y., & Bower, G.H. (1988).Causal belonging of affects to events. Unpublished manuscript.PDF

    Gluck, M. & Bower, G. H. (1988). From conditioning to category learning: An adaptive network model. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 117, No. 3, 227-247.PDF

    Holzman, P. S., Bivens, L. W., Bower, G. H., & Campos, J. (1988). Special Issue: A national plan for schizophrenia research: Panel recommendations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14(3), 413-426.(No PDF).

    Forgas, J. & Bower, G. H. (1988). Affect in social and personal judgments. In K. Fiedler & J. Forgas (Eds.), Affect, cognition and social behavior (pp. 183-208). Toronto: Hogrefe.PDF

    1989

    Bower, G. H. & Mayer, J.D. (1989). In search of mood-dependent retrieval. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(2) 121-156. In D. Kuiken (Ed.) Mood and memory: Theory, research, and applications [Special Issue].PDF

    Morrow, D. G., Bower, G. H., & Greenspan, S. L. (1989). Updating situation models during narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 292-312PDF

    Gluck, M. A., Bower, G. H., & Hee, M. R. (1989). A configural-cue network model of animal and human associative learning. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Cognitive Science Society, Ann Arbor, MI.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1989). Mental models in text understanding. In A. F. Bennett & K. M. McConkey (Eds.), Cognition in individual and social contexts (pp. 129-144). The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers (See also Bower & Morrow, Science, 1990).PDF

    Bower, G. H. & Clapper, J. P. (1989). Experimental methods in cognitive science. In M. Posner (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive science. Bradford Books/MIT Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (Oct. 1989). A connectionist model of classification learning. Speech delivered at The Quad-L Lecture Series, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.(No PDF. See Gluck, Bower, & Hee, 1989)

    Hawkins, R. D. & Bower, G. H. (Edited in 1989). Computational models of learning in simple neural systems. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 23). San Diego: Academic Press.(Book)

    1990

    Bower, G. H. & Morrow, D. G. (1990). Mental models in narrative comprehension. Science, 247, 44-48.PDF

    Bootzin, R., Bower, G. H., Crocker, J., & Hall, F. (1990). Psychology Today, 7th Edition. New York: Random House.(Book)

    Morrow, D. G., Bower, G. H. & Greenspan, S. L. (1990). Situation-based inferences during narrative comprehension. In A. Graesser & G. H. Bower (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Inferences in text comprehension (pp. 123-136). New York: Academic Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1990). Awareness, the unconscious, and repression: An experimental psychologist's perspective. In J. A. Singer (Ed.), Repression and dissociation: Implications for personality theory, psychopathology, and health. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1990). Mood congruity of social judgments. In J. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and social judgments. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.PDF

    Graesser, A. E. & Bower, G.H. (Eds.) (1990). The Psychology of learning and motivation: Inferences in text comprehension. Vol. 25. New York: Academic Press.(Book)

    Clapper, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (1990). The impact of category knowledge on similarity of instances. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.PDF

    1991

    Clapper, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (1991). Learning and applying category knowledge in unsupervised domains. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 27, pp.65-108). San Diego: Academic Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. & Bryant, D. J. (1991). On relating the organizational theory of memory to levels of processing. In W. Kessen, A. Ortony, & F. Craik (Eds.) Memories, thoughts, and emotions: Essays in honor of George Mandler (pp. 149-167). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.PDF

    Sloman, S. A., Bower, G. H., & Rohrer, D. (1991). Congruency effects in part-list cueing inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 974-982.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1991). Incentive programs for promoting safer driving. Paper presented at the OECD International Road Safety Symposium "Enforcement and Rewarding: Strategies and Effects." In M. Koornstra & J. Christensen (Eds.), Enforcement and rewarding: Strategies and effects. Leidschendam, The Netherlands. (pp. 8-16).PDF

    Heit, E., Price, P., & Bower, G. H. (1991). An adaptive strength-comparison model for predicting basketball winners. Paper presented at convention of the Psychonomics Society, San Francisco, (See Heit, Price, & Bower, 1994).PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1991). Mood congruity of social judgments. In Forgas, J. P. (Ed.) Emotion and social judgments. Pp 31-53. Pergamon Press, Oxford.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (1991). Emotion and social perception. Invited address at Southwestern and Western Psychological Conventions.PDF

    1992

    Baars, B. J., Cohen, J., Bower, G. H., & Berry, J. (1992). Some caveats on testing the Freudian slip hypothesis. In B. J. Baars (Ed.), Experimental slips and human errors: Exploring the architecture of volition (pp. 289-313). New York: Plenum Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1992). How might emotions affect learning? In S.-A. Christianson, The Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Research and Theory. (Pp. 3-31). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.PDF

    Bower, G. H. & Mann, T. (1992). Improving recall by recoding interfering material at the time of retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18 , 1310-1320.PDF

    Rinck, M. & Bower, G. H. (June, 1992). Anaphora resolution and the focus of attention in mental models. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse, San Diego, CA.(See Rinck & Bower, 1995)

    Wright, W. F. & Bower, G. H. (1992). Mood effects on subjective probability assessment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 52, 276-291.PDF

    Gluck, M. A., Bower, G.H., & Hee, M.R. (1992). A configural-cue model of associative learning in animals and humans.. Unfinished draft of a long report. PDF

    1993

    Bower, G. H. & Heit, E. K. (1993). Choosing between uncertain options: A reprise to the Estes scanning model. In A. Healy, S. Kosslyn, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.) From learning theory to connectionist theory (Vol. 1, pp. 21-43). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1993). The fragmentation of psychology? American Psychologist, 48, 905-907.PDF

    Gray-Wilson, S., Rinck, M., McNamara, T. P., Bower, G. H., & Morrow, D. G. (1993). Mental models and narrative comprehension: Some qualifications. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 141-154.PDF

    Marsh, R. L. & Bower, G. H. (1993). Eliciting cryptomnesia: Unconscious plagiarism in a puzzle task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 673- 688. PDF

    1994

    Bower, G. H. A turning point in mathematical learning theory. (Commentary on W. K. Estes' “Toward a statistical theory of learning.”) Psychological Review, 101, 290-300).PDF

    Bower, G. H., Thompson-Schill, S. & Tulving, E. (1994). Reducing retroactive interference: An interference analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1-16.PDF

    Rinck, M., & Bower, G. H. (1994). Lost in time and space? Distance effects in situation models are caused by spatial, not temporal, distance. Paper presented at the fourth annual meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse. June, 1994. Washington, D.C.(No PDF)

    Bower, G. H. & Clapper, J. P. (1994). Learning categories without teachers. Paper given at the Third "Practical Aspects of Memory" conference. University of Maryland; College Park, MD.PDF

    Clapper, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (1994). Category invention in unsupervised learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 443-460.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1994). Emotion and social judgments. Speech given at Capital Hill Science Seminar; Sponsored by Federation of Behavioral. Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences, Washington, DC. Sept. 1994.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1994). Temporary emotional states act like multiple personalities. In R. Klein and B. Doane (Eds.), Psychological concepts and dissociative disorders: Reverberating implications. (pp. 207-234). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1994). In appreciation of E. R. Hilgard’s writings on learning theories. Psychological Science, 5, 181-183.PDF

    Heit, E.K., Price, P., & Bower, G. H. (1994). A model for predicting the outcomes of basketball games. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 621-639.PDF

    1995

    Bower, G. H. (1995). Emotion and social judgments. Paper published by the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences, Dec., 1995. Washington, D.C.(See Bower, Emotion & social perception, 1991)

    Bower, G. H. (1995) Empowering people through friendly technology: Psychology in the 21st century. In R. L. Solso & D.W. Massaro (Eds.), The science of the mind: 2001 and beyond. (pp. 18-34). New York: Oxford University Press.PDF.

    Bower, G.H. (1992). A cognitive psychologist’s perspective on consciousness. In S. H. Koslow, R.S. Murthy, & G.V. Coelho (Eds.) Decade of the brain: India/USA research in mental health and neuroscience. (pp. 7-15).NIMH Publications: Rockville, MD.PDF

    Rinck, M. & Bower, G. H. (1995.) Anaphora resolution and the focus of attention in mental models. Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 110-131.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (1995) “Basic Behavioral Science of Mental Health.” Co-author of a report of the NIMH Task Force to the NIMH External Advisory Council. 137 pages. April. 1995.(Obtainable from NIMH Publications).

    1996

    Bower, G. H. (1996). Reactivating a reactivation theory of implicit memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 27-72.PDF

    Rinck, M., Williams, P., Bower, G. H., & Becker, E. S. (1996). Spatial situation models and narrative understanding: Some generalizations and extensions. Discourse Processes, 21, 23-55.PDF

    Bower, G. H., Wagner, A. D., Newman, S. E., Randle, J. D., Hodges, M. J. (1996). Does recoding interfering material improve recall? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 240-245.PDF

    1997

    Rinck, M., Hahnal, A., Bower, G. H., & Glowalla, M. The metrics of spatial situation models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 622-637.PDF

    1998

    Bower, G. H. (1998). An associative theory of implicit and explicit memory. In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi, (Eds.), Theories of Memory II. (Pp. 25-60). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Sivers, H. (1998). Cognitive impact of traumatic events. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 625-653. Rochester, NY: Cambridge University Press.PDF

    Rinck, M., Bower, G. H., & Wolf, K. (1998). Distance effects in surface structures and situation models. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2(3), 221-246.PDF

    1999

    Rinck, M., & Bower, G. H. (1999). Goals as generators of activation in narrative understanding. In S. Goldman, A. Graesser, & P. van den Broek, (Eds.), Narrative Comprehension, Causality, and Coherence: Essays in Honor of Tom Trabasso. Saddle River, N. J.: Erlbaum Publishers.PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Rinck, M. (1999). Priming access to entities in spatial mental models. In W. Hacker & M. Rinck (Eds.), Zukinft gestalten. Bericht über den 41. KongreB der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Dresden 1998. Herausgegeben im Auftrag der Deutschen Degellschaft für Psychologie von Winfried Hacker und Mike Rinck. Berlin: Pabs Science Publishers. (Pp. 74-85). PDF

    Marsh, E. J., & Bower, G. (1999). Applied aspects of source monitoring. The International Journal of Cognitive Technology, 4 (2). (Pp. 4-17).PDF

    2000

    Bower, G. H. (2000). A brief history of memory research. In E. Tulving & F .I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. New York: Oxford University Press. (Pp. 3-32).PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Joseph P. Forgas. (2000). Affect, memory and social cognition. In E. E. Eich (Ed.), Counter-Points: Cognition and Emotion. Oxford University Press. (Pp. 87-168).PDF

    Bower, G. H., & Joseph P. Forgas. (2000). Mood and social memory. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), The Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. (Pp. 95-120).PDF

    Rinck, M., Bower, G. H., & Wolf, K. (2000). Temporal and spatial distance in situation models. Memory & Cognition. 29 (8), 1310-1320.PDF

    Velanova, K., & Bower, G. H. (2000). Recognition memory for “extra-experimental” material. Poster presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society.(No PDF)

    2001

    Forgas, J. P. & Bower, G. H. (2001). Mood effects on person-perception judgments. In Parrott, W. G. (Ed.) Emotions in Social Psychology. Pp. 204-215. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.(No PDF)

    Rinck, M., Denis, M., & Bower, G. H. (2001). Are situation models derived from texts just like mental images? Paper presented at the “European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition” in St. Malo, France, April.(No PDF)

    Bower, G. H., & Rinck, M. (2001). Selecting one among many referents in spatial situation models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition. 27 (1), 81-98.PDF

    Marsh, E. J., Edelman, G., & Bower, G. (2001). Demonstration of a generation effect in context memory. Memory and Cognition, 29, 798-805.PDF

    2002

    Clapper, J. P., & Bower, G. H. (2002) Adaptive categorization in unsupervised learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 28, pp. 908-923PDF

    Rinck, M. & Bower, G. H. (2002) Goal-based accessibility of entities within situation models. In B. Ross (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in research and theory. New York: Academic Press. Vol. 39, pp. 213 - 245.PDF

    Bower, G. H. (2002) Obituary: Ernest R. Hilgard. American Psychologist, 57. pp. 283-285.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (2002). Ernest R. Hilgard (1904-2001): a Memoir. National Academy of Sciences; Washington, DC. National Academy Press.PDF

    2003-2006

    Marsh, E. J. & Bower, G. H. (2004) The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation. Memory. 8, pp.135-145.PDF

    2007

    Bower, G.H. (2007) Autobiography of Gordon H. Bower, In G. Lindzey & W. M. Runyan (Eds.) A history of psychology in autobiography. 2007. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (2007). Tracking the birth of a star. In M. Garry & H. Hayne (Eds.) Do justice and let the sky fall: Contributions of Elizabeth Loftus. (Chapter 2, pp. 15-26) Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, N.J.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (2007). The trait versus situation debate: A minimalist view. In Y. Shoda, D. Cervone, & G. Downey (Eds.) Persons in context: Building a science of the individual. (Chapter 2, pp. 19-42).Guildford Press: New York.PDF

    Bower, G.H. (2007). Testimonial for and reminiscences about Neal E. Miller. Biofeedback, 38 (No. 3), 93-97.Reprinted in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol 155 (No. 3), 2011.PDF

    2008

    Bower, G.H. (2008). The evolution of a cognitive psychologist: A journey from simple behaviors to complex mental acts. In S.T. Fiske, D. L. Schacter, R. Sternberg (Eds.) Annual Review of Psychology, Pp 1-28 (Invited Prefatory chapter), vol. 59, 2008.PDF

    2014

    Bower, G.H. (2014). Reflections on Context and Episodic Memory. Keynote Address at the Context and Episodic Memory Symposium (CEMS), University of Pennsylvania, Philadephia, May 8, 2014.PDFClick here for accompanying Slides. Click here for the video.

    2016

    Bower, G.H. (2016).Translating Hull's Learning Theory into Estes' Stimulus Sampling Theory: A 60 Year Retrospective. Bill & Key Estes Memorial Lecture, APS Convention, Chicago, 2016. Speech TextPowerpoint slides. Click here for the video.

    2018

    Bower, G.H. (2018). Outstanding Mentoring Award. Association for Psychological Science. San Francisco, CA, May, 2018. Click here for the speech





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