Ellen Muir
PhD Candidate

Stanford University
Department of Economics
579 Jane Stanford Way
Stanford, CA 94305

Curriculum Vitae

Microeconomic Theory, Market Design

Dissertation Committee:

Paul R. Milgrom (Primary):

Mohammad Akbarpour:

Gabriel Carroll:

Ilya Segal:

Working Papers

Monopoly pricing, optimal randomization and resale (with S. Loertscher)
Forthcoming, Journal of Political Economy
We provide a parsimonious and unified explanation for randomized selling mechanisms widely used in practice, yet commonly perceived as puzzling. Optimality of randomization in the form of conflation and rationing implies that revenue under market clearing pricing is non-concave. Randomization is implementable via opaque pricing and underpricing. Relative to market clearing pricing, randomization increases the equilibrium quantity and quality of goods sold and, consequently, may increase consumer surplus. For fixed quantities, resale increases consumer surplus. However, resale can decrease the equilibrium quantity and quality of goods sold. Thus, resale prohibition, which always benefits the seller, may also increase consumer surplus.

Optimal market thickness (with S. Loertscher and P. Taylor)
Conditionally accepted, Journal of Economic Theory
Traders that arrive over time give rise to a dynamic tradeoff between the benefits of increasing gains from trade by accumulating traders and the associated cost of delay due to discounting. We analyze this tradeoff in a dynamic bilateral trade model in which a buyer and seller arrive in each period and draw their types independently from commonly known distributions. With symmetric binary types, the optimal market clearing policy can be implemented with posted prices and ex post budget balance, provided it is optimal to store at least one trader. While optimally thick markets involve storing a small number of traders, their performance is nevertheless close to that of a large market. In particular, irrespective of the type distributions, two-thirds of the gains from increased market thickness can be achieved by storing just one trader.

The benefits of market thickness for niche products (with S. Loertscher)
We use an independent private values model to analyze the social benefits and costs of monopoly market makers. Calling products niche (mass) if the fraction of agents who trade in a Walrasian market is small (large), we show that for sufficiently niche products a thick market monopoly generates more consumer (producer) surplus per buyer (seller) than ex post efficient bilateral trade. Moreover, relative to bilateral trade, the sorting benefits of thick markets grow unboundedly for increasingly niche products. If bilateral trade offers an outside option to trading with a thick market monopoly, mass products better mitigate the monopoly's market power.


Road to recovery: Managing an epidemic (with S. Loertscher)
Journal of Mathematical Economics [Special Issue on the economics of epidemics and emerging diseases], 93, 2021

A general noncentral hypergeometric distribution (with S. Loertscher and P. Taylor)
Communications in Statistics – Theory and Methods, 46(9):4579–4598, 2017

Approximating the equilibrium quantity traded and welfare in large markets (with K. Borovkov)
Stochastic Models, 33(3):411–429, 2017


The economics of COVID-19 (with S. Loertscher)
Pursuit, 22 July 2020