```% Digital circuit sizing (a simple, hard-coded example).
% (a figure is generated if the tradeoff flag is turned on)
%
% This is an example taken directly from the paper:
%
%   A Tutorial on Geometric Programming (see pages 25-29)
%   by Boyd, Kim, Vandenberghe, and Hassibi.
%
% Solves the problem of choosing gate scale factors x_i to give
% minimum ckt delay, subject to limits on the total area and power.
%
%   minimize   D
%       s.t.   P <= Pmax, A <= Amax
%              x >= 1
%
% where variables are scale factors x.
%
% This code is specific to the digital circuit shown in figure 4
% (page 28) of GP tutorial paper. All the constraints and
% the worst-case delay expression are hard-coded for this
% particular circuit.
%
% A more general code with more precise models for digital cicuit
% sizing is also available as part of the ggplab examples library.
%
% Almir Mutapcic 02/01/2006
clear all; close all;

% number of cells
m = 7;

% problem constants
f = [1 0.8 1 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5]';
e = [1 2 1 1.5 1.5 1 2]';
Cout6 = 10;
Cout7 = 10;

a     = ones(m,1);
alpha = ones(m,1);
beta  = ones(m,1);
gamma = ones(m,1);

% maximum area and power specification
Amax = 25; Pmax = 50;

% optimization variables
gpvar x(m)    % scale factors

% input capacitance is an affine function of sizes
cin = alpha + beta.*x;

% load capacitance of a gate is the sum of its fan-out c_in's
% output gates have their load capacitances

% gate delay is the product of its driving res. R = gamma./x and cload

power = (f.*e)'*x;         % total power
area = a'*x;               % total area

% constraints
constr_x = ones(m,1) <= x; % all sizes greater than 1 (normalized)

% evaluate delay over all paths in the given circuit (there are 7 paths)
path_delays = [ ...
d(1) + d(4) + d(6); % delay of path 1
d(1) + d(4) + d(7); % delay of path 2, etc...
d(2) + d(4) + d(6);
d(2) + d(4) + d(7);
d(2) + d(5) + d(7);
d(3) + d(5) + d(6);
d(3) + d(7) ];

% objective is the worst-case delay
circuit_delay = max(path_delays);

% collect all the constraints
constr = [power <= Pmax; area <= Amax; constr_x];

% formulate the GP problem and solve it
[obj_value, solution, status] = gpsolve(circuit_delay, constr);
assign(solution);

fprintf(1,'\nOptimal circuit delay for Pmax = %d and Amax = %d is %3.4f.\n', ...
Pmax, Amax, obj_value)
disp('Optimal scale factors are: ')
x

%********************************************************************
%********************************************************************

% varying parameters for an optimal trade-off curve
N = 25;
Pmax = linspace(10,100,N);
Amax = [25 50 100];
min_delay = zeros(length(Amax),N);

% set the quiet flag (no solver reporting)
global QUIET; QUIET = 1;

for k = 1:length(Amax)
for n = 1:N
% add constraints that have varying parameters
constr(1) = power <= Pmax(n);
constr(2) = area  <= Amax(k);

% solve the GP problem and compute the optimal volume
[obj_value, solution, status] = gpsolve(circuit_delay, constr);
min_delay(k,n) = obj_value;
end
end

% enable solver reporting again
global QUIET; QUIET = 0;

plot(Pmax,min_delay(1,:), Pmax,min_delay(2,:), Pmax,min_delay(3,:));
xlabel('Pmax'); ylabel('Dmin');

end
```
```
Iteration     primal obj.         gap        dual residual     previous step.

1         3.89037e+00       3.20000e+01       1.07e+02               Inf
2         3.47240e+00       1.32459e+01       3.10e-01       9.52513e-01
3         1.85461e+00       9.31800e+00       7.64e-02       5.09750e-01
4         1.22655e+00       6.88966e+00       2.15e-02       4.73957e-01
5         8.60617e-01       5.18674e+00       3.42e-03       6.03053e-01
6         4.04436e-01       3.55712e+00       6.32e-04       5.64136e-01
7        -1.66117e-02       2.08420e+00       4.59e-05       7.20804e-01

Iteration     primal obj.         gap        dual residual     previous step.

1         4.76437e+01       3.20000e+01       7.63e-01               Inf
2         1.38223e+01       2.64314e+01       5.85e-01       1.24588e-01
3         5.76117e+00       2.23269e+01       3.29e-01       2.50000e-01
4         5.17905e+00       1.56792e+01       3.02e-04       1.00000e+00
5         3.69433e+00       7.84091e+00       3.18e-04       1.00000e+00
6         2.81300e+00       3.92205e+00       1.66e-04       1.00000e+00
7         2.35935e+00       1.96290e+00       5.99e-05       1.00000e+00
8         2.12727e+00       9.82837e-01       1.30e-05       1.00000e+00
9         2.01360e+00       4.91886e-01       1.64e-06       1.00000e+00
10         1.96179e+00       2.46028e-01       1.40e-07       1.00000e+00
11         1.93877e+00       1.23196e-01       6.80e-08       1.00000e+00
12         1.92771e+00       6.18340e-02       8.84e-08       1.00000e+00
13         1.92225e+00       3.10914e-02       4.45e-08       1.00000e+00
14         1.91955e+00       1.56506e-02       1.56e-08       1.00000e+00
15         1.91821e+00       7.88274e-03       4.60e-09       1.00000e+00
16         1.91755e+00       3.97081e-03       1.19e-09       1.00000e+00
17         1.91722e+00       1.99948e-03       2.68e-10       1.00000e+00
18         1.91705e+00       1.00589e-03       4.96e-11       1.00000e+00
19         1.91696e+00       5.05378e-04       7.21e-12       1.00000e+00
20         1.91691e+00       2.53560e-04       8.23e-13       1.00000e+00
21         1.91689e+00       1.27057e-04       7.56e-14       1.00000e+00
22         1.91688e+00       6.36062e-05       5.71e-15       1.00000e+00
23         1.91687e+00       3.18233e-05       3.80e-16       1.00000e+00
24         1.91687e+00       1.59168e-05       2.42e-17       1.00000e+00
25         1.91687e+00       7.95966e-06       1.52e-18       1.00000e+00
26         1.91687e+00       3.98015e-06       9.50e-20       1.00000e+00
27         1.91687e+00       1.99015e-06       5.95e-21       1.00000e+00
28         1.91687e+00       9.95097e-07       3.72e-22       1.00000e+00
29         1.91687e+00       4.97553e-07       2.32e-23       1.00000e+00
30         1.91687e+00       2.48778e-07       1.45e-24       1.00000e+00
31         1.91687e+00       1.24389e-07       9.09e-26       1.00000e+00
32         1.91687e+00       6.21947e-08       5.72e-27       1.00000e+00
33         1.91687e+00       3.10974e-08       3.63e-28       1.00000e+00
34         1.91687e+00       1.55487e-08       1.93e-29       1.00000e+00
35         1.91687e+00       7.77435e-09       3.86e-30       1.00000e+00
Solved
Problem succesfully solved.

Optimal circuit delay for Pmax = 50 and Amax = 25 is 6.7996.
Optimal scale factors are:

x =

2.9336
4.7136
4.1289
4.2254
2.1706
3.4140
3.4140

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```