Links & Reference

[a] Cox, F.E.G, “History of Human Parasitology,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, October 2002, 595-612, v. 15, no. 4, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

[b] Forgione, Michael (Jr, MD), Chief of Infectious Diseases, Instructor, Department of Medicine, Keesler Medical Center, eMedicine website, Onchocerciasis, http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1667.htm

[c] Onchocerciasis, Tropical Medicine Central Resource

[d] Waterborne Diseases, Environmental Literacy Council

[1] O. Volvulus taxonomy, Department of Nematology at UC Davis

[2] Markell, John, Krotoski. Medical Parasitology, 8th Edition. Philadelphia: Saunders: 1999

[3] Forgione, Michael (Jr, MD), Chief of Infectious Diseases, Instructor, Department of Medicine, Keesler Medical Center, eMedicine website on onchocerciasis

[4] O. volvulus, Center for Disease Control (CDC)

[5] Eezzuduemhoi, Deborah (MD), Instructor, Glaucoma Specialist, Department of Ophthalmology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, eMedicine website on onchocerciasis

[a] Horwitz A. Opening statement. Research and control of onchocerciasis in the Western hemisphere: proceeds of an international symposium, Washington, D.C., 18-21 November 1974. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1974. pp xi-xii.

[b] Buck AA. Epidemiologic features of onchocerciasis. Research and control of onchocerciasis in the Western hemisphere: proceeds of an international symposium, Washington, D.C., 18-21 November 1974. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1974. pp 35-45.

[c] Connor DH. Pathology of onchocerciasis and main geographic and local characteristics of the disease. Research and control of onchocerciasis in the Western hemisphere: proceeds of an international symposium, Washington, D.C., 18-21 November 1974. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1974. pp 11-24.

[d] Duke BOL. Clinical manifestations and geographic differences. Research and control of onchocerciasis in the Western hemisphere: proceeds of an international symposium, Washington, D.C., 18-21 November 1974. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1974. pp 25-29.

[e] Onchocerciasis vectors in the Western hemisphere. Research and control of onchocerciasis in the Western hemisphere: proceeds of an international symposium, Washington, D.C., 18-21 November 1974. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1974. pp 58-83.

[f] Samba EM. The onchocerciasis control porgramme in West Africa: an example of effective public health management. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1994.

[g] CDD field guide. Nigeria: s.n., 200-?.

[h] Wigg D. And then forgot to tell us why: a look at the campaign against river blindness in West Africa. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1993.

[i] “WHO: Onchocerciasis (river blindness).” World Health Organization [website], 2004. Accessed 16 May 2004.

[j] “Onchocerciasis disease information: the UNICEF-UNDP-World Bank-WHO Special Progamme for Research and Training.” World Health Organization Tropical Disease Research [website], 2004. Accessed 16 May 2004.

[k] World Health Organization. Onchocerciasis and its control. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Onchocerciasis Control. WHO Technical Report Series 852, Geneva (1995).

[l] Winnen M. et al. Bull. World Health Organ. 80, 384–390 (2002).

[m] T Lazdins-Helds JK, Remme JHF, Boakye B. “Onchocerciasis.” TDR Nature Reviews Microbiology Disease Watch Focus, Vol. 1, No. 3. Dec 2003. Accessed 19 May 2004.

[n] Richards FO. “CDC Travelers’ Health Information on Onchocerciasis (River Blindness).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [website]. 30 June 2003. Accessed 19 May 2004.

[o] Sun T. “Onchocerciasis.” Parasitic Disorders: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Management, 2nd ed. Baltimore MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. pp 273-281.

[p] Ash LR, Orihel TC. “Onchocerca volvulus.” Atlas of Human Parasitology, 4th ed. Chicago: American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press, 1997. pp 269-272.

[q] World Health Organization. World Health Report 2002.

[r] “Training of Trainers: Onchocerciasis Guide for Training Doctors and Other Health Personnel.” Helen Keller International Trachoma Program [website]. Accessed 20 May 2004.

[s] “Merck Announces Expansion of World's Largest Donation Program by Adding Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis) to the Mectizan(R) Donation Program In Africa.” (PRNewswire. 22 Oct 1998.) Lymphovenous Canada [website]. Updated 1 Jan 2001. Accessed 20 May 2004.

[t] Martin G. “Africa’s Regions [pdf]” from “African Regional Cooperation and Integration” in Ann Siedman and Frederick Anang, eds., Twenty-first Century Africa. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1992. Updated with data from 1996 editions of Europa Publications’ Africa South of the Sahara and The Middle East and North Africa. Found on Africa Action [website]. Accessed 21 May 2004.

[u] Tueller T. “Natural Vegetation in Africa [pdf]” from “Africa Savanna: Lesson Plan” from TeacherLINK [website]. Accessed 21 May 2004.

[v] “Onchocerciasis.” E-Medicine [website]. Updated 14 August 2002. Accessed 23 May 2004.

[w] World Health Organization [website]. 2004. Accessed 23 May 2004.

[x] “River Blindness Program.” The Carter Center [website]. 2002.Accessed 24 May 2004.

[y] Associated Press. “Carter Welcomes River Blindness Donation.” 19 May 2004. Accessed 24 May 2004.

[z] “Vision Program.” Lions Club International Foundation [website]. Updated 12 April 2004.Accessed 24 May 2004.

[aa] Sight Savers International [website]. Accessed 24 May 2004.

[ab] "Pages From World Bank History: The Fight Against River Blindness." World Bank [website]. 4 March 2003. Accessed 24 May 2004.

[I] "Filariasis." E-medicine[website].Updated 22 August 2002. Accessed May 22, 2004.

[II] Murdoch, ME et al. "A clinical classification and grading system of the cutaneous change in onchocerciasis." British Journal of Dermatology, September 1993, v129, no.3, 260-269.

[III] Okulicz, J.F. et al. "Cutaneous onchocercoma." International Journal of Dermatology, 2004, 170-172, v.43.

[IV] Burnham, G and T. Mebrahtu. "The delivery of ivermectin (Mectizan®)." Tropical Medicine and International Health, April 2004, A26-A44, v.9 no.4.

[V] Awadzi, K.G. et al. "The co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole-safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy against Onchocerca volvulus." Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, March 2003, 165-178, v.97, no.2.

[VI] "The River Blindness Genome Project." [website]. Updated October 24, 2003. Accessed May 23, 2004.